Planning of the Protected Area
The Park Plan
The Park Territory Plan (acronym PTP) is the basic mechanism for defining the objectives, the guidelines and the regulations in force in a protected area.
The PTP consists of many documents that are the result of a complex undertaking: to gather knowledge of, and to interpret, the environmental and social features of the territory which the Plan is to regulate, so the PTP could be defined as the Land Use Plan of the Protected Area.
The conservation and correct management of the nature, environment and landscape are key aims of the Adamello PTP; these objectives should be pursued above all by retrieving a proper cultural and economic relationship between man and the environment.
In addition to, and in coherence with, its main aim, other objectives concern research into, and application of, forms of economic, social and cultural development of local communities which must necessarily be sustainable and compatible in particular as regards the educational, recreational and sports use of the environment. These objectives should be pursued by seeking new ways of intervention which are compatible with the protection of natural resources.
The Lombardy Region established the Adamello Park under Regional Law No. 86 dated 30/11/1983 (General Plan of the regional protected areas. Regulations for the establishment and management of reserves, parks and natural monuments as well as natural areas of particular environmental importance), recently amended by the Regional Law dated 4th August 2011, No. 12 ” New organization of the governing bodies of regional protected areas and changes in regional laws 30th November 1983, No. 86 and16th July 2007, No. 16.”
The law that officially sanctioned the creation of the Adamello Park is the Law dated 16th September 1983 No. 79. Since then there have been several changes and additions especially those mentioned in the “Consolidated bill of regional laws on the establishment of parks” which reorganized the whole sector and was approved by Regional Law No. 16 dated 16th July 2007.
Moreover, one aspect which is essential in order to fully understand the role and the importance of the Adamello Park and of other parks in Lombardy is the national law that governs Natural Parks and within which lie the regional standards, and that is the Law dated 6th December 1991 No. 394 “Framework Law on Protected Areas”.
This law establishes a strict protection regime for the areas defined as “Natural Park” (for example by banning hunting, the opening of quarries and mines, the change of land use, etc..) leaving room for the regional legislator to set up regulations to provide other forms of protection of the environment and the landscape.
In the Lombardy Region, in accordance with national and regional regulations, there are now two different protection regimes: one for the NATURAL PARK strictly adhering to the provisions of national law, and one for the REGIONAL PARK with regulations which are less restrictive.
This is also the case in the Adamello Park where the Lombardy Region, with Regional Law No. 23 dated 1st December 2003, established the “Adamello Natural Park”, roughly corresponding to areas at higher altitude and less affected by anthropized environments, and lower down the “Adamello Regional Park” where the rules and regulations are less restrictive than in the natural park.
The regulations regarding the “Natural Park” are contained in the Park Territory Plan approved by the Regional Council Resolution dated 22nd November 2005 No. VIII/74 while those relating to the Regional Park are contained in Regional Council Resolution No. VII/6632 dated 29th October 2001, with subsequent amendments (Regional Government Decree dated 24th March 2005 No.VII/21201 and Regional Government Decree dated 11th May 2006 No. 8 / 2488).
The Adamello Park was created with the following aims:
- to protect biodiversity, to preserve and enhance the fauna, flora, vegetation, geology, waterbodies, ecosystems and landscape of the area;
- to ensure that land and property use is compatible with the natural environment;
- to lean towards to the conservation and reconstruction of the environment;
- to achieve integration between man and the natural environment through the safeguarding of anthropological, archaeological, historical and architectural values as well as traditional and agro-silvo-pastoral activities;
- to promote and regulate the use of the area for scientific, cultural, educational and recreational purposes.
Within the Adamello Park, thanks to the planning process described above, some areas have been identified as “Nature Reserves” due to their geographic and environmental characteristics, and in these areas the objectives regarding both their conservation and interaction with human activity are defined in greater detail.
The “Nature Reserves” are divided into:
- INTEGRAL NATURE RESERVE where human action is completely barred except for educational or research purposes.
- ORIENTED NATURE RESERVE where human activity is oriented towards some conservation activities (recovery of forest and pasture, management of certain species of animals or plants, etc.)
- PARTIAL NATURE RESERVE (forest, botanical, zoological, anthropological, etc.) where human activities are allowed if compatible with the environmental features which it is a priority to conserve and enhance.
A list of the Nature Reserves which are part of the Adamello Park including location and a definition of their main priorities.
Integral Nature Reserve “Val Rabbia and Val Gallinera”
Oriented Nature Reserve “Val Gallinera-Aviolo”
Oriented Nature Reserve “Lake Arno”
Oriented Nature Reserve “Alto Cadino-Val Fredda”
Partial Nature Reserve for morphology -landscape-biology “Adamello”
Partial Nature Reserve for biology “Torbiere del Tonale”
Partial Nature Reserve for biology “Torbiere di Val Braone”
Partial Nature Reserve for zoology and forestry “Woods of Vezza and Vione”
Partial Nature Reserve for zoology and forestry “Piz d’Olda-Pian della Regina”
Partial Nature Reserve for zoology and forestry “Frisozzo-Re di Castello”
Partial Nature Reserve for morphology – landscape – botany “Badile-Tredenus”
Partial Nature Reserve for botany “Marser-Bos”
The general plan of the PTP divides the Park area into three zones according to altitude in order to protect the environment and landscape:
- Zone of anthropic landscape;
- Zone of alpine landscape;
- Zone of peak landscape.
Moreover, in the PTP general plan the boundaries of the nature reserves, which were created in order to protect the most important vegetational, zoological, morphological, hydro-geological and landscapes features, are shown with a special sign.
The nature reserves are, as a whole, the area of “Natural Park” the meaning and origin of which we have already explained, as well as being the Special Protection Area (SPA) IT2070401 established under Directive 79/409/EEC.
The PTP also identifies some “Natural Monuments”:
- large trees;
- granite erosion cones.
The Plan also identifies the areas of anthropic interest, with the following classification:
- Area subject to municipal intervention;
- Areas of tourist facilities and settlements;
- Areas of terraced fields.
The general plan also identifies, with appropriate symbols:
- Areas of particular scenic and environmental importance;
- Wetlands and bogs;
- Areas of biological conservation;
- Park Access Points and areas with leisure facilities
- Ski Areas;
- Areas for the opening of new ski pistes;
- Sites of archaeological interest;
- Incompatible activities.
The current state of planning.
The Park Territory Plan, an essential instrument for land planning in the Adamello Park, was adopted by the Comunità Montana Assembly back in 1992. The comments of public bodies and the private sector were counter-deducted by the Comunità Montana Assembly on 21st April 1994. The Plan was approved by Regional Government Decree No. 7/6632 dated 29/10/2001. The documents of the Plan were published in the Official Bulletin of the Lombardy Region on 29/11/2001 (II extra supplement No. 48). Subsequent variations were approved by Regional Government Decree dated 24th March, 2005 No.VII/21201 (Official Bulletin of the Lombardy Region dated 22nd April 2005, 3rd extra suppl. No.16) and Regional Government Decree dated 11th May 2006 No. 8/2488 (Official Bulletin of the Lombardy Region dated 30th May 2006, 2nd extra suppl. No. 22).
On 19th October 2011 the documentation regarding the 4th Variation to the PTP was transmitted to the Lombardy Region (including procedures for SEA (strategic environmental assessment) and Environmental impact assessment), recently adopted and counter-deducted by the Comunità Montana of Vallecamonica.
Other effects of Park planning
The Park PTP also counts as a landscape plan excerpt of the Regional Land Use Plan and coordinates with the landscape aspects of the Provincial Territory Plan; it prevails over the planning of local authorities (municipalities and provinces); it governs and plans the management of wildlife (only in the Natural Park, while in the Regional Park provincial regulations regarding hunting and fishing are valid).
Il GeoPortale di Valle Camonica è consultabile al seguente link: http://bit.ly/1QCQJrH